Persian is an Indo-Iranian language within the Indo-European language family. It is also called Parsi or Farsi (the Arabized form of Parsi – the Arab alphabet has no “p” consonant). Modern Persian descends from Middle Persian, which in its turn derives from Old Persian, the language of the Persian Empire. It is official language in Iran, Afghanistan (officially called Dari for political reasons) and Tajikistan (officially called Tajiki for political reasons since the Soviet times and written in Cyrillic alphabet). Besides, it is spoken by significant Persian-speaking communities in Iraq and other regions which came under the Persian influence in Uzbekistan, Bahrain and some small communities in Georgia, Azerbaijan, Russia. There are about 110 million speakers worldwide, out of who about 60-70 million are native speakers and the others speak Persian as a second language. Most of them live in Iran.With our team of experienced, bilingual
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Neighboring languages (Turkic languages, Armenian, Georgian, Urdu, Pashto, Bahrani Arabic) have been considerably influenced by Persian in terms of vocabulary. After the Muslim Conquest of Persia, the Persian language borrowed much vocabulary from Arabic. Persian has a long history of written literature (examples are A Thousand Tales from which One Thousand and One Nights originated, the literary works of poets like Saadi, Hafis Rumi, Omar Chayyam), which has exerted great influence on writers worldwide.
The main varieties of Modern Persian are Western Persian (spoken in Iran and minorities in Iraq and Persian Gulf States), Eastern Persian (spoken in Afghanistan) and Tajiki (spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan). Speakers of these varieties can understand each other. Apart from these main groups, there are also several local dialects which differ from Standard Persian.
Modern Iranian Persian and Afghan Persian are written with a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet to which four letters have been added, while Tajiki is written with the Cyrillic script. Before the adoption of the Arabic alphabet after the Islamic conquest of Persia, two different scripts were used for Middle Persian, Pahlavi and the Avestan alphabet, whereas Old Persian used the cuneiform script.
The ISO language code for Modern Persian is fa.
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